Publications

2022
Vainstub, D., 2022. The Bullae of the Son of אוחל from the City of David. pp. 120-129 , 2 , pp. 120-129.Abstract
In the excavations conducted by Y. Shiloh in the City of David in Jerusalem during 1978–1985, an impressive hoard of 45 Hebrew bullae was found in the stratum destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE. Two of them, stamped by the same seal, were read לאליקם̇ בן אוהל. The plene spelling with waw for the vowel o in the name אוהל was a novelty in the Hebrew epigraphy of the First Temple period, as this was the first time that such a spelling had been found in a fully preserved and provenanced inscription. In this study, it will be shown that the third letter in the second name is, in fact, a ḥet rather than a he and, hence, that the name should be read אוחל. This name is built on the root wḥl, which implies that the letter waw on the bullae is not a mater lectionis. The misreading of this letter led to a series of far-reaching conclusions concerning some aspects of the pronunciation of the Hebrew spoken by the inhabitants of Judah in the 7th–6th centuries BCE and consequently the historical development of the orthography of the Hebrew script, conclusions that should now be revised.
Vainstub, D., et al., 2022. A Canaanite’s Wish to Eradicate Lice on an Inscribed Ivory Comb from Lachish. pp. 76-119 , 2 , pp. 76-119.Abstract
An inscription in early Canaanite script from Lachish, incised on an ivory comb, is presented. The 17 letters, in early pictographic style, form seven words expressing a plea against lice.
Yamaç, A., 2022. Some Interesting Underground Cities and Peculiar Underground Structures of Kayseri (Turkey). pp. 70-107 , 3 (1) , pp. 70-107.Abstract
Cappadocia, like many other parts of the world, is loaded with underground defense structures. The volcanic tuff, characteristic of the region, is easy to carve through and covers hundreds of square kilometers, thus providing favorable conditions for numerous underground defense structures. Consequently, almost every village in Cappadocia boasts at least one or more rock-cut structures. Although some are small and stand-alone structures, others constitute large and elaborate underground cities, including hundreds of meters-long tunnels and countless rooms. For more than seven years now, the OBRUK Cave Research Group has carried out the Underground Structures Inventory Project in Kayseri province. To date, 33 underground cities have been systematically explored and surveyed. This article begins with an introductory overview of the historical background and research of underground cities in Cappadocia and continues with an account of some of the most telling examples of these structures.
Kohn-Tavor, A., 2022. An Early Bronze Age I Tomb, a Dwelling Cave, and a Quarry at the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem. pp. 51-69 , 3 (1) , pp. 51-69.Abstract
A small salvage excavation was conducted in 2007 at the Mount of Offence (part of the Mount of Olives, Ras el-‘Amud neighborhood), overlooking Jerusalem’s old city. The excavation revealed finds of three periods: the EB Ib, late Iron Age IIc, the Early Roman, and the Byzantine periods. The EB Ib remains included a burial cave, which was only partly excavated. The remains provide important information about the inhabitants of early Jerusalem. Later, in the Late Iron Age IIc, part of the cave was cleared and used for temporary habitation, perhaps in anticipation of the impending Babylonian siege. Lastly, in the Early Roman and Byzantine periods, the mountainside was made into a quarry, unaware of the early cave. These three chronological episodes offer us a glimpse into some of the activities on the outskirts of ancient Jerusalem.
Shivtiel, A., 2022. Caves in the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Qur’an. pp. 45-50 , 3 (1) , pp. 45-50.Abstract
This article deals with the caves mentioned in the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Qur’an. It highlights all the relevant occurrences of the Hebrew, Arabic, and Greek words for cave, discusses its etymologies, and provides brief details about the contexts in which it is mentioned.
Klein, E., et al., 2022. “They Shall Come into the Hollows of the Earth” (Isa 2:19): Bar Kokhba-Period Hiding Complexes at Biblical Tels—Tel Lavnin as a Case Study. pp. 14-44 , 3 (1) , pp. 14-44.Abstract
Hiding complexes in Judea have been objects of considerable scholarly interest since the 1970s. By now, we are well acquainted with their main features and spatial distribution. Most hiding complexes in the Judean foothills were cut beneath the houses in Jewish villages. They were entered via shafts carved out of the nari rock, leading to underground passages quarried in the soft chalk beneath. Following recent intensive looting at Tel Lavnin, a site located in ‘Adullam Park, south of the Ela Valley, inspectors of the Antiquities Theft Prevention Unit of the Israel Antiquities Authority documented three hiding complexes. In this paper, we present these hiding complexes and the objects discovered in them. We discuss these complexes’ special architectural features and ponder why particular architectural methods were chosen. We then compare the complexes of Tel Lavnin to complexes documented elsewhere in Judea. We propose that they constitute an architectural subtype of hiding complexes from the Bar Kokhba Revolt and predict that others like them will be discovered in the future.
Farhi, Y., 2022. A Ring from a Cave in ‘En Gedi and the Conflict Between Herod the Great and Mattathias Antigonus (40–37 BCE). pp. 3-13 , pp. 3-13.Abstract
This paper presents a rare bronze finger ring that was found more than half a century ago and bears a symbol known mainly from the coins of  Mattathias Antigonus. A teenager recovered it from one of the burial caves in the cliff of Naḥal David at ‘En Gedi. Although the cave was later excavated by Nahman Avigad, the ring was forgotten and was not incorporated in the excavation report. This paper discusses the ring, the symbol it bears, and its relation to the coins of Antigonus. I suggest a date and identification for the burials in the cave that associates them with the conflict between Herod and Antigonus.
Shivtiel, Y., 2022. Editorial. pp. 1-2 , 3 (1) , pp. 1-2.
2022. Title page.
JJAR, 2022. Cover page. , 3 (1).
2021
Dvira, Z. & Barkay, G., 2021. Clay Sealings from the Temple Mount and Their Use in the Temple and Royal Treasuries. pp. 41-75 , 2 , pp. 41-75.Abstract
In the course of sifting earth removed from the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, dozens of clay sealings from the First Temple period were recovered. Among them was a sealing bearing the name of the priestly family of Immer. In-depth study of the writing on the sealing, as well as the fabric imprint on its reverse, indicated with a high probability that this sealing was used in the Temple treasury. The article reviews the function and use of sealings in the administration of ancient Near Eastern treasuries and the significance of sealings with a textile imprint on their reverse. The study revealed similar patterns in the finds near the “Royal Building” exposed in the Ophel excavations, and we therefore suggest identifying it with Judah’s royal treasury.
dvira_barkay_2021_jjar_2_41-75.pdf
Golub, M.R., 2021. Personal Names on Iron Age I Bronze Arrowheads: Characteristics and Implications. pp. 16-40 , 2 , pp. 16-40.Abstract
This study analyzes 110 personal names found on 63 Phoenician inscribed bronze arrowheads, each owned by a different individual. Except for one item discovered in situ, all the arrowheads came from the antiquities market. Most of the arrowheads are paleographically dated to the Iron Age I. The study reveals similarities between the arrowhead onomasticon and the Iron Age II Phoenician onomasticon. These similarities suggest that the arrowhead onomasticon is a typical Phoenician collection of names and that most of the arrowheads are probably authentic. The few differences between the two onomastica may be attributed to changing onomastic trends over time, from the Iron Age I to the Iron Age II.
golub_2021_jjar_2_16-40.pdf
2021. Front Matter.
Rollston, C., et al., 2021. The Jerubba‘al Inscription from Khirbet al-Ra‘i: A Proto-Canaanite (Early Alphabetic) Inscription. pp. 1-15 , 2 , pp. 1-15.Abstract
This article presents a Proto-Canaanite inscription written in ink on a jug. It was unearthed in 2019 at Khirbet al-Ra‘i, located 4 km west of Tel Lachish, in a level dated to the late twelfth or early eleventh century BCE. Only part of the inscription had survived, with five letters indicating the personal name Yrb‘l ( Jerubba‘al). This name also appears in the biblical tradition, more or less in the same era: “[Gideon] from that day was called Yrb‘l” ( Judg. 6:31–32). This inscription, together with similar inscriptions from Beth-Shemesh and Khirbet Qeiyafa, contributes to a better understanding of the distribution of theophoric names with the element ba‘al in the eleventh–tenth centuries BCE in Judah.
Rollston
Schroer, S., 2021. The Continuity of the Canaanite Glyptic Tradition into the Iron Age I–IIA. pp. 482-502 , pp. 482-502.Abstract

The article relates to several recognizable developments in the iconography of the Early Iron Age. It indicates that during the 11th and beginning of the 10th centuries BCE the dominant Egyptian influence was on the decline, and other traditions came to prominence: from the north, Syrian influences, and in some places sub-Mycenaean influences. The autochthonous Canaanite heritage experienced a revival, developing new themes and using new media.

Mumcuoglu, M. & Garfinkel, Y., 2021. Royal Architecture in the Iron Age Levant. pp. 450-481 , pp. 450-481.Abstract

In the Iron Age II, during the 10th to 6th centuries BCE, the local rulers of the Levant developed an elite style of architecture. The aim of this study is to define this phenomenon, summarize the data, and evaluate the appearance and distribution in the Levant of this architectural style. The six prominent characteristics of the royal style are recessed openings of doors and windows, rectangular roof beams, ashlar stone masonry, volute (proto-Aeolic) capitals, window balustrades, and decorated bases.

Thomas, Z., Keimer, K.H. & Garfinkel, Y., 2021. The Early Iron Age IIA Ceramic Assemblage from Khirbet al-Ra‘i. pp. 375-449 , pp. 375-449.Abstract

The early 10th-century BCE pottery assemblage from Khirbet al-Ra‘I is presented. The assemblage, which came from a few rooms that were suddenly destroyed, offers a large number of complete profiles. This is the second largest pottery assemblage, after that of Khirbet Qeiyafa, of this poorly known ceramic phase.

Kang, H.-G. & Garfinkel, Y., 2021. The Fortifications of Areas CC and BC at Tel Lachish. pp. 352-374 , pp. 352-374.Abstract

During the Fourth Expedition to Tel Lachish in the years 2014-2017 a series of fortifications was uncovered in Area CC, in the center of the northern edge of the mound. In addition to the previously known city walls of Levels I–IV, the expedition discovered a new city wall, built in Level V and dated to the late 10th and the first half of the 9th centuries BCE.

Harrison, T.P., 2021. The Iron Age I–II Transition in the Northern Levant: An Emerging Consensus?. pp. 325-351 , pp. 325-351.Abstract

The development of a refined, and widely accepted, chronological and cultural sequence has eluded the study of the Iron Age Northern Levant, despite more than a century of archaeological exploration and research. The renewed investigations at Tell Tayinat (ancient Kunulua), capital of the Neo-Hittite Kingdom of Palastin/Walastin and scene of large-scale excavations by the Syrian-Hittite Expedition in the 1930s, have resulted in a tightly constructed stratigraphic and chronological cultural sequence, or “local history,” for this period. This refined “Amuq Sequence” indicates a number of culturally and historically significant transitions, including the transition from the Iron Age I to the Iron Age II, ca. 900 BCE, and it offers the prospect of forging a consensus regarding the cultural and chronological periodization of the broader Iron Age Northern Levant and Southeast Anatolia.

Lehmann, G., 2021. The Emergence of Early Phoenicia. pp. 272-324 , pp. 272-324.Abstract

The transition from the Iron Age I to the Iron Age IIA during the 10th century BCE was a period of profound political and socio-economic transformations in the Levant. One of these developments was the emergence of early Phoenicia. In its course, Phoenicia emanated as an interface of international exchange connecting Mediterranean and continental economies of the Levant. This had a profound impact on the societies of the Southern Levant in general and ancient Israel in particular. Phoenician influence was not just marginal for the history of ancient Israel but developed into an integral component of Israelite economic and political history.