Rollston, C., et al., 2021. The Jerubba‘al Inscription from Khirbet al-Ra‘i:A Proto-Canaanite (Early Alphabetic) Inscription. Jerusalem Journal of Archaeology , 2 , pp. 1-15.Abstract
This article presents a Proto-Canaanite inscription written in ink on a
jug. It was unearthed in 2019 at Khirbet al-Ra‘i, located 4 km west of Tel
Lachish, in a level dated to the late twelfth or early eleventh century BCE.
Only part of the inscription had survived, with five letters indicating the
personal name Yrb‘l ( Jerubba‘al). This name also appears in the biblical
tradition, more or less in the same era: “[Gideon] from that day was
called Yrb‘l” ( Judg. 6:31–32). This inscription, together with similar
inscriptions from Beth-Shemesh and Khirbet Qeiyafa, contributes to a
better understanding of the distribution of theophoric names with the
element ba‘al in the eleventh–tenth centuries BCE in Judah.